La presente Ley tiene por objeto adoptar medidas para proteger la salud de la Para efectos de la presente Ley, los siguientes términos se. the inception of the Tobacco Control Act in Colombia (Ley de ). .. ( Ley antitabaco supera otro escollo en el senado, 19 de noviembre de ). Ley required removing tobacco advertising including billboards and Aprobación de ley antitabaco pone en ‘jaque’ el futuro de la.
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Fumadores y no fumadores aprueban normas antitabaco
Smokefree implementation in Colombia: Monitoring, outside funding, and business support. To analyze successful national smokefree policy implementation in Colombia, a middle income country.
Key informants at the national and local levels were interviewed and news sources and government ministry resolutions were reviewed. Nongovernmental organizations provided technical assistance and highlighted noncompliance. Organizations outside Colombia funded some of these efforts. Tobacco interests did not openly challenge implementation. Health organization monitoring, external funding, and hospitality industry support contributed to effective implementation, and could be cultivated in other low and middle income countries.
Organizaciones antitzbaco de Colombia financiaron antitzbaco de estos esfuerzos. Smokefree laws protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke and reduce tobacco-induced diseases. The experience of high income countries 45678910 antirabaco that successful implementation requires active education and enforcement, 911 appropriate enforcement agencies, 5 and support from nongovernmental organizations NGOs. Smoke-free implementation for low and middle-income countries LMICs is challenging because tobacco companies often have more resources than the health authorities, 14 and tobacco industry oey are less controlled,12 making implementation antitqbaco or uneven.
Colombia, with an adult smoking prevalence of In JulyLey dea comprehensive tobacco control law, expanded smokefree coverage to all hospitality venues, 20 making Colombia the country with lowest gross domestic product per ajtitabaco with such a national smokefree law. We conducted interviews with 14 in-country tobacco control advocates, national and local health authorities, and policymakers between October and December following protocol IRB approved by the University of California, San Francisco Committee on Human Research table I.
Health advocates then argued for legislation to comply with the FCTC. Toro, passed in July to implement FCTC Articles 8 and including smokefree areas, prohibiting tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and prohibiting individual cigarette sales. Implementation of the smokefree provisions did not face the concerted tobacco industry opposition common elsewhere, 4 atitabaco, 69101112131632 likely because the companies seem to have focused on countering the prohibitions on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.
Implementation, with generally good compliance and enforcement, varied regionally. As in high income countries, 333435 implementation included guidance from the Health Ministry to local health departments, education by health departments and advocates, and enforcement by local health authorities and police, especially in major cities.
The Health Ministry provided guidance, but local agencies had autonomy a in educational efforts, and worked with local police on enforcement. For the law, the Health Ministry shared surveillance, education, and enforcement practices among local health departments. Implementation was strongest in big cities and in cities with supportive political leadership: Anittabaco health departments distributed materials to business owners and the public before and after implementation.
Implementation was weakest in rural areas and the Atlantic coast, with less interest from agencies in these areas e. Antigabaco advocates had focused on large cities, e and the Antitabavo state had more presence in departmental capitals. Rural and small-city health agencies often knew little of the law e or claimed having limited resources and personnel.
Consistent with FCTC guidelines, 3 the law authorized enforcement by local police and health authorities. The law required signage about smokefree environments, but without a predefined list, allowing for more expansive text figure 1. Organizations outside Colombia funded Colombian NGOs to create educational materials and train local health department staff.
In and Fenalco distributed flyers to business owners and employees claiming smoking in terraces was antitabacoo 4450 because they were not under roofs 51 and claimed that health advocates were maligning Fenalco for its interpretation.
Universities developed educational campaigns to implement smokefree educational institutions. Different from high income countries, in Colombia there were few government resources, weak state capacity, lwy enforcement agencies focused on antitabavo security.
Like many Latin American countries, Colombia lacked a strong national smokefree education campaign, 16 but had many vigorous local campaigns. Three factors in Colombia especially contributed to strong implementation. First, noncompliance vigilantly exposed by NGOs, including for terraces, as in the case of local implementation in Mexico and the US.
SinceAsobares, with the help anntitabaco the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, visited hospitality associations throughout Latin America to encourage national smokefree laws.
Third, international organizations antirabaco implementation, supporting NGOs to provide education and technical assistance. Smokefree legislation should clearly cover all workplaces and specify national and local agency responsibilities. Health advocates should cultivate hospitality association support in advance of legislation, when possible.
International funders should continue strongly funding LMIC implementation, as moderate resources anttitabaco make substantial impacts. We attempted to contact tobacco control staff in departmental and large-city health agencies throughout Colombia.
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Only those highly engaged in implementation agreed to interviews, so our findings hold to the extent that such interviews captured the key issues of local implementation. Colombia serves as an example of successful implementation of smokefree air in a middle income country. Beyond government agency activities, health organization vigilance, outside organization funding, and hospitality industry support contributed to strong implementation.
The funding agencies played no role in the selection of the research question, conduct of the research, or preparation of the manuscript. Department of Health and Human Services. Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke. Magzamen S, Glantz SA. Am J Public Health ; Tobacco Control in Tennessee: Thomson G, Wilson N.
Australia and New Zealand Health Policy ;2: Drope J, Glantz S. Tsoukalas T, Glantz SA. Gonzalez M, Glantz SA.
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No sign of atnitabaco Journal of Applied Social Psychology ; Attempts to Undermine Tobacco Control: