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Roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa is a species of Hibiscus probably native to West Africa,  used for the production of bast fibre and as an infusionsabdariff which it may be known as carcade.
It is an annual or perennial herb or woody-based subshrubgrowing to 2—2. They take about six months to mature. The roselle is known as the rosella or rosella fruit in Australia.
The Atongs call it “dachang” or “datchang”. It is called as “gongura” by Telugu-speaking people from India. It also has a local name Saril or flor de Jamaica in Central America. The plant is primarily cultivated for the production of bast fibre from the stem.
The fibre may be used as a substitute for jute in making burlap. The red calyces of the plant are increasingly exported to the United States and Europe, particularly Germanywhere they are used as food colourings. It can be found in markets as flowers or syrup in places, such as Francewhere there are Senegalese immigrant communities.
They give flavour to the Senegalese fish and rice dish thieboudienne. Brazilians attribute stomachic, emollient, and resolutive properties to the bitter roots.
In Maharashtraroselle is called Ambadi. The Ambadi leaves are mixed with green chillies, salt, some garlic to prepare a chutney which is served with Jowar or jxmaica made bhakri. This is eaten by Farmers as breakfast to start their day. A dry vegetable or Sukhi Swbdariffa made of Ambadi leaves tastes good with Bhakri. In Andhra cuisineroselle is called gongura and is extensively used.
The leaves are steamed with lentils and cooked with dal. Another unique dish is prepared by mixing sabdariiffa leaves with spices and made into a gongura pacchadithe most famous dish of Andhra cuisine, often described as king of all Andhra foods.
In Burmese cuisinecalled chin baung ywet lit. It is perhaps the most widely eaten and popular vegetable in Burma.
A light soup made from roselle leaves and dried prawn stock is also a popular dish. Among sahdariffa Paites tribe of the Manipur Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus cannabinus locally known as anthuk are cooked along with eabdariffa, fish, crab or pork or any meat, and cooked as a soup as one of their traditional cuisines.
The Bodos of north east India cook its leaves with fish, shrimp or pork which is much relished. Sometimes they add native lye called karwi to bring down its tartness and add flavour. In the Philippines, the leaves and flowers are used to add sourness to the chicken dish tinola chicken stew.
In Hiibscus, the young leaves, stems and fruits are used for cooking soups with fish or eel. Note that djissima-gounday is also considered an affordable dish. In the Caribbean, a drink is made from sepals of the roselle fruit. It is prepared by boiling fresh, frozen or dried sepals; and sometimes the calyces  and seeds, of the fruit of the sorrel plant in water for 8 to 10 minutes or until the water turns redthen adding sugar.
It is often served chilled. This is done in St. LuciaDominicaGrenadaJamaica and St. Kitts and Nevis where the plant or fruit is called sorrel.
The hibiscuz is one of several inexpensive beverages aguas frescas commonly consumed in Mexico and Central America; they are typically made from fresh fruits, juices or extracts. In Mexican restaurants in the US, the beverage is sometimes known simply as Jamaica Spanish pronunciation: It is very popular in Trinidad and Tobago especially as a seasonal drink at Christmas where cinnamon, cloves and bay leaves are preferred to ginger. It is then consumed with or jamacia ice cubes after jamajca flowers have been strained.
Roselle is used in Nigeria to make a refreshing drink known as Zobo and natural fruit juices of pineapple and watermelon are added. Ginger is also sometimes added to the refreshing ssbdariffa. With the advent in the U. In addition to being a popular homemade drink, Jarritosa popular brand of Mexican soft drinks, makes a flor de Jamaica flavored carbonated beverage.
Imported Jarritos can be readily found in the U. In the US, a beverage known as hibiscus cooler is made from the tea, a sweetener, and sometimes juice of apple, grape or lemon. The beverage is sold by some juice companies. In the UK, the dried calyces and ready-made sorrel syrup are widely and cheaply available in Caribbean and Asian grocers. The fresh calyces are imported mainly during December and January to make Christmas and New Year infusions, which are often made into cocktails with rum.
They are very perishable, rapidly developing fungal rot, and need to be used soon after purchase — unlike the dried product, which has a long shelf-life. In Africaespecially the Sahelroselle is commonly used to make a sugary herbal tea that is sold on the street. The dried flowers can be found in every market. Roselle tea is quite common in Italy where it spread during the first hiniscus of the 20th century as a typical product of the Italian colonies.
In Thailand, roselle is generally drunk as a cool drink,  and it can be made into a wine. Hibiscus flowers are commonly found in commercial herbal teas, especially teas advertised as berry-flavoured, as they give a bright red colouring to the drink. Rosella flowers are sold as wild hibiscus flowers in syrup in Australia as a gourmet product.
Recipes include filling them with sabdaridfa cheese; serving them on baguette slices baked with brie; and placing one plus a little syrup in a champagne hlbiscus before adding the champagne — the bubbles cause the flower to open. In Nigeria, rosella jam has been made since colonial times and is still sold regularly at community fetes and charity stalls.
It is similar in flavour to plum jam, although hibisdus acidic. It differs from other jams in that the pectin is obtained from boiling the interior buds of the rosella flowers. It is thus possible to make rosella jam with nothing but rosella buds and sugar.
In Burma, the buds of the roselle are made into ‘preserved fruits’ or jams. Depending on the method and the preference, the seeds are removed or included. The jams, made from roselle buds and sugar, are red and tangy. In India, Roselle is commonly made into a type of pickle. Rosella jam is made in QueenslandAustralia as a home-made or speciality product sold at fetes and other community events.
Although a meta-analysis conducted by the Cochrane hypertension group concluded “No studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria”  a more recent meta-survey in the Journal of Hypertension suggests a typical reduction in blood pressure of around 7. China and Thailand hibiscux the largest producers and control much of the world supply.
Thailand invested heavily in roselle production, and their product is of superior quality. China’s product, with less stringent quality control practices, is less reliable and reputable. Mexico, Egypt, Senegal, Tanzania, Mali and Jamaica are also important suppliers but production is mostly used domestically. In the Indian subcontinent especially in the Ganges Delta regionroselle is cultivated for vegetable fibres. Most of its fibres are locally consumed.
Roselle Jamaican Hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa)
However, the fibre as well as cuttings or butts from the roselle plant has great demand in natural fibre using industries. Roselle is a relatively new crop to create an industry in Malaysia. It was introduced in the early s and its commercial planting was first promoted in by the Department of Agriculture in Terengganu. The planted acreage jaaica Despite the dwindling hectarage over the past decade or so, roselle is becoming increasingly known to the general population as an important pro-health drink.
To a small extent, the calyces are also jamqica into sweet pickle, jelly and jam.
In many respects, the amount of research work is considered [ by whom? Genetic variation is important for plant breeders to increase crop productivity. Being an introduced species in Malaysia, there is a very limited number of germplasm accessions available for breeding. UKM maintains a working germplasm collection and conducts agronomic research and crop improvement. Conventional hybridization is difficult to carry out in roselle due to its cleistogamous nature of reproduction.
Because of this, a mutation breeding programme was initiated to generate new genetic variability. Roselle is a tetraploid species; thus, segregating populations require longer time to achieve fixation as compared to diploid species.
These new varieties were developed using Arab as the parent variety in a mutation breeding programme which started in A study was conducted to estimate the amount of outcrossing under local conditions in Malaysia.
It was found that outcrossing occurred at a very low rate of about 0. However, this rate is much lower in comparison to estimates of natural cross-pollination of between 0.
The Hibiscus leaves are a good source of polyphenolic compounds. The major identified compounds include neochlorogenic acidchlorogenic acidcryptochlorogenic acidcaffeoylshikimic acid and flavonoid compounds such as quercetinkaempferol and their derivatives.
Roselle – Hibiscus sabdariffa – Seeds
The dried calyces contain the flavonoids gossypetinhibiscetine and sabdaretine. The major pigment, formerly reported as hibiscinhas been identified as daphniphylline.
Small amounts of myrtillin delphinidin 3-monoglucosidechrysanthenin cyanidin 3-monoglucosideand delphinidin are present. Roselle seeds are a good source of lipid-soluble antioxidants, particularly gamma-tocopherol. A popular roselle variety planted in Malaysia: Roselle fruits are harvested fresh, and their calyces are made into a drink rich in vitamin C and anthocyanins. On the average, variety Arab yields more and has a higher calyx to capsule ratio.
Dried roselle calyces can be obtained in two ways.