Aceración con Hornos Básicos de Oxígeno La refinación del arrabio en el proceso BOF o aceración al oxígeno se lleva a cabo en un recipiente que asemeja. Horno Básico de OxígenoUNIDAD 6 Horno Siemens Martin. Convertidor de Soplado Nariz (N) Lanza de Oxigeno (L) Cintur. The basic oxygen furnace (BOF), whose profile is shown in the figure, is a tiltable vessel lined with refractories such as magnesia carbon brick. Auxiliary.
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Edgar Saldaña –
Limestone, scrap, and sponge iron are all potential coolants that can be added to a heat that has been overblown and is excessively hot. The sulfur level from the blast furnace can be 0.
The penetration of slag and metal between the refractory grains, mechanical erosion by liquid movement, and chemical bot by slags all contribute to loss of lining material.
Over the years, there have been numerous operating developments designed to counteract this lining wear: None of the above would be significant however, without the improvements in quality and type of basic brick available to the industry.
However, in the U. It was also used in the U. The high concentrations of FeO formed late in the blow, however, will oxidize the carbon in the brick.
This rate of production made the process hogno with the basic casting of slabs, which in turn had an enormous beneficial impact on yields from crude steel to shipped product, and on downstream flat-rolled quality. There exist several variations on the BOS process: There are lesser energy contributions from the oxidation of iron, manganese, and phosphorus.
If the zinc content is low enough, it can be recycled to the blast furnace or BOF vessel after briquetting or pelletizing. In both cases, the cleaned gases must meet EPA-mandated levels for particulate matter.
The nearby Dolomite Mountains also provided an ideal source of material for basic refractories. The most common desulfurizing reagents, lime, calcium carbide and magnesium – used alone or in combination – are injected into the hot metal through a lance. A ton BOF today needs about 20 tons of pure oxygen every 40 minutes.
Therefore, thanks to the engineering genius of Alexander Holley, two Bessemer plants were in operation by The lance is then raised so that the vessel can be turned down towards the charging aisle for sampling and temperature tests. The magnesia lime type refractories used in lining oxygen steelmaking vessels are selected mainly for their compatibility with the highly basic finishing slags required to remove and retain phosphorus in solution.
Most BOF shops in the U. Once the hot metal temperature and chemical analaysis of the blast furnace hot metal are known, a computer charge models determine the optimum proportions of scrap and hot metal, flux additions, lance height and oxygen blowing time.
In contrast the U.
Because oxygen was not available commercially in those days, air was the oxidant. Static charge models however do not ensure consistent turndown at the specified carbon and temperature because the hot metal analysis and metallic charge weights are not known precisely. He oxgieno developed a commercial process for making steel consistently. It was blown through tuyeres in the bottom of the pear shaped vessel.
Obsolete scrap may contain a variety of other objects which could be hazardous or explosive. Japan switched from a rebuilding plan based on hornl hearths to evaluate the LD, and installed their first unit at Yawata in Fluxes serve two important purposes. BOS process replaced open hearth steelmaking. The Europeans quickly took to dde “Thomas Process” because of their very high-phosphorus hot metal, and as a bonus, granulated the phosphorus-rich molten slag in water to create a fertilizer.
In addition, as the tar softened during vessel heat-up, the lining was relieved of expansive stresses. Byit exceeded that of the open hearth for the first time and has never relinquished its position as the dominant steelmaking process in the U.
From here it may undergo further refining in a secondary refining process or be sent directly to the continuous caster where it is solidified into semifinished shapes: Scrap selection is further complicated by the wide variety of steel products.
The trend today is to run at norno productivity with low slag volumes and fuel rates, leading to lower silicon and higher sulfur levels in the hot metal. Despite its high cost, oxygen was used in Europe to a limited extent in the ‘s to enrich the air blast for blast furnaces and Thomas converters. As a result, Bessemer’s steel suffered from both “hot shortness” due to sulfur and “cold shortness” due to phosphorus that rendered it unrollable. Cans return to the market very quickly but autos have an average life of 12 years.
Contratista EPC 5-150 t básica oxígeno industrial horno fusorio BOF
It finds its way into the recycling stream very quickly. Obf this represents the loss of a considerable amount of energy about 0. Obviously the chemical analysis of obsolete scrap is imprecise.
In autogenous BOS operation, scrap is by far the largest heat sink. While other products allow this to range as high as 0. The sulfur containing compounds report to the slag; however, unless the oxigneo slag is skimmed before the hot metal is poured into the BOF, the sulfur actually charged will be well above ve level expected from the metal analysis. Steel burns through the plug immediately. However, the daily output of remotely located charcoal blast furnaces was very low. In many shops residual slag is blown with nitrogen to coat the barrel and trunion areas of the vessel.
This saturates the slag with MgO, thus reducing chemical erosion of the MgO vessel lining. Blowing continues for a predetermined time based on the metallic charge chemistry and the melt specification.
The original bricks were tar bonded, where the MgO grains were coated with tar and pressed warm represented a great step forward for the BOS process.
The gas is primarily carbon monoxide CO from the carbon in the hot metal. However, elsewhere its use is growing. Unlike the open hearth, the BOF operation is conducted almost “in the dark” using mimics and screens to determine vessel inclination, additions, lance height, oxygen flow etc.
The lance is water-cooled with a multi-hole copper tip. Most European iron ores and therefore hot metal was high in sulfur and phosphorus and no processes to remove these from steel had been developed in the s.
For his first commercial plant in Sheffield,Bessemer remelted cold pig iron imported from Sweden as the raw material for his hot metal.