January 2, 2020

Aug 3, Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam. By Fred IN HIS LATEST BOOK, Fred Donner offers a provocative and comprehensive. Muhammad and the Believers has ratings and 33 reviews. Oldroses said: Back in Fred Donner is as captivating an author as he is a lecturer. This book is . Donner, Fred M. Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam. Cambridge, MA, and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, xviii+

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Those who follow the messenger, the ummi prophet. This is Fred M. The book may be difficult reading for some. The rigidity of this social order helped create the con- ditions be,ievers which movements such as Manichaeism or Mazdakism, which aimed at creating a more equitable society, found popular support; it was only partly tempered by reforms initiated by Great King Khosro Anoshirwan in the early sixth century. However, archaeologists have discovered evi- kuhammad of large-scale slaughtering of livestock, particularly camels, at al-Rabadha, in the form of massive deposits of camel bones that are archaeologically datable to the period of the earliest community of Believers.

These Arabian gods were hon- ored at local shrines, called harams, often centered on a sacred tree, rock, spring, or other feature, which the deity was thought to inhabit. For both political and economic reasons, the Byzantines and Sasanians felt a need to maintain a presence in Arabia— if only to thwart the other from gaining too much influence there. Muhammad himself was slightly wounded, but the Meccan alliance came apart on the brink of victory and had to withdraw, leaving Muhammad and his followers shaken but still standing.

Another dimension of the religious mood of the Byzantine do- mains in the sixth century, and one not unrelated to asceticism, was I ‘he N car luisl on the Eve of Islam 15 SI Simeon.

Quraysh, however, were in no mood to allow Thee and his followers to come into their town unopposed, given the long hostilities between them and the fact frsd Muhammad was still blocking the passage of Meccan caravans. This male elite held virtually all formal author- ity and dominated slaves, women, children, and men of common The Near East on the Eve of Islam 17 class.

Massacres and theft did occur during this changing hegemony, as recorded by Thomas the Presbyter of the Battle of Gaza in If this evidence holds up— it has never been fully pub- lished— it suggests that Abu Bakr and his first successors as amir al- muminin may indeed have organized a centralized system to supply basic provisions to their armies in the field.


Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam

The technical distinction between rasul and nahi will be discussed more fully later in this chapter. Urban centers in the eastern Mediterranean were much stronger than those in the West, where cities had almost vanished, but their prosperity was also weakened during the late sixth century.


It is best, therefore, to stick very closely to what the Qur an itself says for information. A History of Judaism. While many of the purported treaty texts found in literary sources are suspect as later inventions, some features of this one suggest that it may he more authentic.

It was only after the death of Muhammad and ane question of succession had been settled after two civil wars that Islam was rigidly defined and codified, restricted to only those who followed mmuhammad teachings of the Koran who were now called Moslems.


Muhammad and the Believers – Fred M. Donner – Google Books

For no good thing that they do will he passed over without thanks; for God knows the pious. A few great kings flirted with rival forms of religious expression, such as Manichaeism founded by the prophet Mani in the third century c.

The Sasanians also had alliances with other chieftains along the Arabian coasts of the Persian Gulf. The account is readable, for the most part, although I did get bogged down in the last few chapters. It was in this environment of modest commercial activity and diverse religious ideas coming from both Arabian paganism and from the monotheistic traditions of the wider Near East that Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah, the prophet of Islam, was beoievers and raised.

Mecca and Yathrib Medina The two towns where Muhammad spent his life, Mecca and Yathrib later usually called Medinawere about km mi apart from one another in the rugged region anx as the Hijaz in western Arabia. His discussion of the development of leadership of the community in the first hundred years after the death of the Prophet Muhammad does not get bogged down in the divergent narratives but nonetheless is able to delineate how the various groups and political parties develop, and how this process culminates in the development of the religion that is more recognizable today.

Donner does not suggest this, possibly because as an ecumenical movement there was no need to augment a new, separate religion when none was needed. Judaism had come to Arabia very early— probably immediately after the Roman destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 C. Crone raised important theological issues with this title, suggesting that the ruler muhammae the believers also held the religious authority to form a new religion that gradually became Islam.

It manifested itself in periodic diplomatic maneuvering be- tween the two powers in an attempt muhamad secure political allegiance and cultural and economic advantage in those border areas that the empires did not already rule directly or did not wish to bother to rule directly, such as Arabia. Moreover, if the Believers thought that they were indeed destined to inherit the Earth, there could be no better place to begin than in fertile Syria. Donner juga memperlihatkan bagaimana suksesi kekuasaan adalah sesuatu yg sangat sulit.

Despite muhsmmad challenges from the Avars and stiff Sasa- iikiii opposition, he rallied the Byzantine troops to save the Chris- tian empire and to restore the True Cross to Jerusalem, perhaps the lu si instance of a religiously legitimized imperial war.


Yemen became a special focus of this Byzantine-Sasanian compe- tition, partly for religious reasons and partly because it occupied a particularly pivotal place in their rivalry over Arabian gelievers.

A Note on Conventions T J. They will continue to fight you until they turn you from your religion, if they can. As in antiquity, daily life for most people in the sixth-century Byzantine Empire was brutally harsh— so harsh that most of us alive today, in believes West at least, could hardly endure it. In the view of Muslim tradition, the Ka’ba had originally been built by Abraham as a shrine to the one God, so Mu- beluevers was by these actions merely rededicating it to its original monotheistic purpose.

Donner includes here the best overview of the pre-Islamic Middle East I have ever read and that’s saying somethingas well a sophisticated but clear presentation of the early “Believer movement”.

Muhammad and the Believers — Fred M. Donner | Harvard University Press

De- scriptions of the battle of Qadisiyya itself are, although voluminous, hazy and often suspect, but the outcome was clear— a decisive defeat of the Sasanian army, including the death of Rustam himself.

Either Islam is a religion of peace or it is a religion of jihad. Yet its coeval term, “Believer” Mu’min in Arabicno longer carries much currency muhamkad Muhammad ibn Abdullah’s “Prophet Muhammad’s” votaries, who since Islam’s second century identify themselves rather as “Muslims” and their religion as “Islam” rather than “Belief”.

It is donnsr vast and overwhelmingly arid land, extend- ing in the north into the edges of the modern countries of Jordan, Syria, and Iraq. Judd; Muhammad and the Believers: The idea that the Last Day was near is mentioned explicitly in several verses: In the Mediterranean region and adjacent lands, many features of the earlier classical cultures were still recognizable even as late odnner the seventh or eighth century, albeit in new or thw form, while others died out, were changed beyond recognition, or were given completely new meaning and function.

This established mutual obligations between him and the Quraysh Emigants on the one hand and Medinese Helpers on the other, including the Jewish clans affiliated with the latter, binding them all together as belonging to a single community umma.

The Sasanians en- tered a prolonged period of political instability, with numerous pre- tenders, including two Sasanian princesses, muhsmmad for the throne over the next decade.

Similarly, the public and civic rituals of classical times, focused on the amphitheatre, the public bath, freed the performance of civic duties, were beginning to atrophy— especially in smaller towns— and, after the fifth century, were gradually being replaced by more private pursuits of a religious and introspective kind.