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The causes are varied; in fact, any situation that alters the emotional state or vugambilia is interpreted as a possible triggering agent.
The therapies are designed to reassure health, i. For this propose, the oral administration of plants infusions is common. The most studied plant is Galphimia glauca Cav.
These species could be a potential source of compounds with activity in the central nervous system. Mexican medicinal plants; Nervios; Anxiety; Depression; Mexican traditional medicine.
Any circumstances that alter the emotional state or medicinall are interpreted as possible triggering agents” Zolla, Several conditions are described as: The first one is an occasional state suffered by any human being. The second is part of the character of an individual, which in itself is affected, and suffering from a state of chronic anxiety, among other symptoms.
The third is a “nervous breakdown”, a severe condition, in which the individual shows little control over their emotions medkcinal actions, occurring suddenly in response to a stressful bugzmbilia loss of consciousness may occur Guarnaccia et al. The oral administration of plant infusions, decoctions, but also as inhalations, as well as hot or cold baths generally prepared with aromatic plant species is common.
Massaging, rubbing and kneading the body “sobadas” are also prescribed for muscle relaxation and to reduce stress. Commonly therapies are accompanied by rituals and ceremonies in order to improve the psychological status Campos and Cano, ; Zolla, However, “nervios” is so widely reported across many contrasting regional, linguistic, and demographic barriers that it defies description as a culturebound syndrome.
The way the illness is experienced and conceptualized may vary across cultural groups Guarnaccia, These individuals may experience a variety of social, political, economic and familiar issues Weller et al. Depression and anxiety are clinic illnesses related to the central nervous system CNSwhich share symptoms, or can be included in the same illness group with the so called “nervios”. For example, people who suffer of “nervios” or depression experience sadness, disturbed sleep and reduced concentration and attention WHO, In the case of anxiety and “nervios”, the people have trembling, dizziness, headaches, stomach disturbances.
The aim of this paper is to answer the questions: How many and which plant species are reported in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the treatment of “nervios”, depression and anxiety?
Which species have been studied chemically and pharmacologically? Does scientific evidence support the purported medicinal folk applications for the treatment of nervous illness by the studied plants? The plant species were obtained from bibliographic sources of Mexican Traditional Medicine.
A systematic search was performed using the following terms: The review covers the past 15 years until March ofmainly from the electronic data bases: We also reviewed those plants subjected to scientific studies, since these species can be a meedicinal source of compounds with activity in the CNS. Biomedical researchers that research the chemical and pharmacological basis of ethnobotanical knowledge, for instance by studying extracts of plants, commonly use animal models to determine potential antidepressant-like or anxiolytic-like activity.
This review was divided in the following sections: Plants used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the treatment of “nervios” Section 1or sadness and depression Section 2. Experimental studies of plants with models to assess anxiolytic activity Section 3 or antidepressant activity Section 4.
Patients, even in metropolitan areas, can combine traditional medicine practices with planat drugs Campos and Cano, ; Finkler, ; Argueta et al. Teas are prepared plantta only one plant, or as mixture of plants, among them: Agastache mexicana toronjil moradoAgastache mexicana subsp. Cold and hot baths with these plants are recommended, especially with aromatic species Chemin, ; Zavala, These represents the 2. These are reports from several locations from 16 of 32 States of the Republic.
All the plants have a popular name, but it can vary among different locations. Almost all species are prepared as tea from the aerial parts; plaanta, in several cases the roots are used. Seventeen plants are edible, although, not always the eatable part is used medicinally; only three plants are also used as spices or for seasoning. Several species were introduced from Europe, Asia and African after XVI century, the process of importation and the globalization of information have continued, and new plants have been added, such as Valeriana officinalis, Hypericum perforatumand Lavanda sp.
Several ethnobotanical reports explicitly indicate nine plants used for the treatment of depression, or sadness, a symptom of depression Chart 2. These species belong to eight families. Cyperaceae family includes two species.
These reports are from seven different states of the country. Almost all species are prepared as infusions of the aerial parts; however, in two cases roots are used. None of these plants have been studied to validate their purported properties.
Bugambilia Plant Climate The Plant Bugambilia Planta En Ingles –
Argemone mexicana, Chenopodium ambrosoidesand Chiranthodendron pentadactylon are endemic. Anxiety is considered to be a normal reaction to a stressor, characterized as a state of being that arises from general and non-specific stimuli perceived as being potentially threatening in the future. This perception often results in an apprehensive mood accompanied by increased arousal and vigilance, which when taken to an extreme persist for extended periods of time Dias et al.
However, when anxiety becomes overwhelming, it may fall under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Anxiety in laboratory rodents are often measured using crude behavioral assays, such as the elevated plus maze EPM. Anxiety can also be modeled using both light-enhanced, and dark-enhanced startle paradigms, context conditioning, and by exploiting the unpredictability of aversive events, such as mild shock Dias et al.
Contemporaneously, The use of herbal medicine is widespread amongst suffers of mood and anxiety disorders.
Worldwide, species as Melissa officinalis lemon balmMatricaria recutita chamomile and Humulus lupulus hops are known anxiolytics, and its mechanism of action has started to be explored Sarris, Galphimia glauca, Tilia americana L. All, with exception of M. All the above-mentioned species are prepared as infusions of areal parts, with the exception of V.
In these studies, the most used model to assess the anxiolytic activity was the elevated plus maze EPM ; and, almost all experiments used mice as experimental animal, with the exception of C. Currently, this plant is commonly known as: It is used in the Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of nervous excitement Tortoriello and Lozoya, Twenty years ago, the sedative activity of the methanolic extract from G.
This effect was attributed to a norsecotriterpene named galphimine B GB 2 Tortoriello and Ortega, Afterwards, galphimine A 1 and galphimine E 3 were isolated, and found to be active, although less potent than GB.
Likewise, the standardized methanolic extract of G. In other study, it was observed that the structural feature responsible for the anxiolytic activity of the compounds was the presence of free hydroxyl groups at Plantq, C-6, and C-7, and the double bond in the A ring Herrera-Ruiz et al. On the other bugambiliia, the effect of the chronic administration of aqueous, ethanolic or methanolic extracts of G.
Only a decrease of palnta spontaneous activity was observed, no deaths were induced and the histopathological analysis of different organs did not show any alterations. The administration of these extracts for 56 days same doses and route in mice did not cause any changes in the biochemical parameters for liver function.
The therapeutic effectiveness, safety, and the tolerability of a new standardized herbal medicinal product was next developed from the aqueous extract of G. This herbal product showed important anxiolytic effectiveness, very similar to that observed with lorazepam, and both treatments showed therapeutic safety Herrera-Arellano et al.
Later, the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of G. The authors concluded that G. Regarding to the mode of action of G. Popularly it is known as “tila”, “cirimbo”, “sirimo”, “tila de bolita”, “tsirimu” and “tilo”, among others.
Bougainvillea – Wikipedia
The flavonoid content of the methanol extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, although the extracts were prepared differently from those used for pharmacological evaluation. The analysis revealed specific flavonoid composition, demonstrating differences between flowers bugambilua bracts depending on the site of collection; differences were due to the sugar residues present, but not in the aglycones, kaempferol 4 and quercetin 5 content.
No difference in the neuropharmacological activity was observed between methanol extracts of Mexican Tilia collected in three different places. In contrast, other research group also working with Tilia americana buugambilia.
These authors reported that hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts p.
The methanol extract was subjected to a bioassay-guided fractionation, which afforded a rich flavonoid mixture with anxiolytic activity, identifying tiliroside 6 as the major component; however, this compound was not isolated and tested Herrera-Ruiz et al.
In the case of Ternstroemia pringlei the methanol and aqueous extracts from the fruits elicited sedative, but not anxiolytic, activity Balderas et al. Its uses have been reported to be as tranquilizer, for the treatment of anxiety, and insomnia.
The aqueous extract of C. Other work with this species, evaluated the anxiolytic activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves on male and female rats, as well as on mice. The results revealed that the extract i. It also increased the exploration time on EPM open arms 1. On the other hand, the extract p.
The neuropharmacological profile of the essential oil leaves was determined in rats. It was found that the essential oil had anxiolytic activity administered for fourteen days However, the same treatment, no changes were found in the behavior of rats in the OFT. Regarding its mechanism of action, the authors suggested that R- – -carvone modulates behavioral inhibition i. This proposal was based on previous reports on the depressant activity of two enantiomers of carvone de Sousa et al.
The underground organs of several species of genus Valeriana Caprifoliaceae are used by the traditional medicine of many cultures as mild sedative, and tranquilizer, and as a sleep inducing aid Houghton, The genus is comprised of about species, and has been used medicinally before Christianity in the Mediterranean area, India, and China.
Several species are object of trade, for instance V. Chemical differences have been determined between the European and Mexican Valerian, although both species have similar effects on CNS.
A previous report described the sedative and enhanced pentobarbital effect of valerenic acid isolated from V.