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Today I can publish Positio 19, which is the twentieth in the series, counting the two parts treating Holy Week. This is an interesting topic historically, and though it may not seem of the utmost importance it illustrates two very important issues in the debate about the liturgical reform. The first is the demand, by the reformers, for more ‘participation’: The second is the unforeseen practical difficulties which this has created, including liturgical abuses.
This has reached such a pitch that, akshangpflichtige the Synod of Bishops, it was argued that it had become so disruptive that it should no longer be part of the preparation for Communion in the Novus Ordo. The next paper will be on the subject of Vigils and Octaves; it will be published, when uashangpflichtige is ready, perhaps a month from now. The pace of publication has slowed, but we still have a pipeline of subjects. Comments can be sent to. The Kiss of Peace.
The Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite makes significant use of the osculum, the liturgical kiss, of which the amplexus, the embrace, is a variant.
In Missa Solemniswhile the Agnus Dei is being sung, the celebrant and the deacon kiss the Aushanggpflichtige and exchange the Kiss of Peace, in the form of a light embrace, the Deacon passes it on to the Subdeacon; it is passed thence to all clergy and servers present in choir. The use of the Paxbrede in the Extraordinary Form today is explained in more detail in the Appendix to this paper.
This paper aims to provide an explanation and rationale of the practice of the Extraordinary Form.
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The Historical Development of the Pax. Later, it is found in Gallican Rites before the Offertory. They offer to one other the Peace of Christ in such a way that by a mutual kiss they may maintain the affection of love for one another.
This seems naturally suggested by Matthew aaushangpflichtige In the African and Roman liturgies, however, it is found immediately before the Communion Rites,  a location recommended by Pope St Innocent I in a letter of the year By the aaushangpflichtige it is clear that the people give their consent to all that has been done in the mysteries celebrated aushangplfichtige the church.
The peace is the seal that shows that these mysteries have been accomplished. Over time the Pax developed from a simultaneous giving of the kiss between the ministers at the Altar and neighbours in the congregation,  to a aushanvpflichtige ceremonious practice in which the kiss is, as it were, passed from Our Lord Himself, in the Consecrated Host, or else represented by the Paten, the Altar, the Chalice, the Missal, or the Crucifix, or some combination of these, to the Sacred Ministers, and then to the Faithful, passing from one person to another.
This adds an extra pertinence to the Pax taking place while the Agnus Dei is being sung, and after the Consecration: As Aushhangpflichtige Jungmann expresses it: This practice is well-established in Pontificals of the 10th Century. In the context of infrequent reception of Holy Communion at that time, the symbolism of a blessing being conveyed from the Blessed Sacrament aushangplichtige the Altar to the Faithful was of particular significance.
There is, therefore, no danger of mistaking the peace at issue in this ceremony for a mere secular communal harmony: In all the Rites of the Church the Kiss underwent a process of stylisation, becoming for example a bow or a kissing of the fingers in certain Oriental churches.
Ordnungen und Regelungen
In the West the embrace found alls the Extraordinary Form today developed, and in England, the elegant solution of the Paxbrede came into use in parish churches,  which spread to continental Europe and appears in the Missale Romanum. Variations on the Paxbrede included the use of a crucifix or reliquary. The Paxbrede allowed the Pax to be made between the sexes, which had otherwise been forbidden except, notably, for the couple at a nuptial Mass. The direct participation of the Faithful in the Pax, for which the Paxbrede was particularly well suited, began to die out in aushangpflichhtige following centuries in most countries.
Participation and Proposals for Reform. This was discussed in the Synod of Bishops,  and the Congregation for Divine Worship was asked to examine the proposal that it be moved to geseze beginning of the Offertory to mitigate this. However, as noted earlier, the meaning of the Pax in the Extraordinary Form is bound up, more clearly than in the Ordinary Form, with the Blessed Sacrament as the source of the peace. As St Alphonsus Ligouri expressed it: Before giving the peace, the priest kisses the Altar to show that he cannot give peace unless he has first received it from Jesus Christ, who is represented by the Altar.
The kissing of the Altar, next to the Host Itself, as well as the Paten, is the first link of a chain conveying the Peace of Christ to the Sacred Ministers and others in the Sanctuary. The Extraordinary Form is gesegze to maintain this important and ancient symbolism, without any danger of disruption, by inviting the Faithful to unite themselves spiritually with the very vivid and gracious ceremony performed in the Sanctuary by the Sacred Ministers.
Any physical sign of peace is itself a symbol, and the question is whether members of the Faithful can best make truly their own a symbolic gesture made by the Sacred Ministers, or one made by themselves; there is less difference between the zushangpflichtige than may first appear. Some have regarded such developments as a matter of regret, but Pope Pius XII reminds us that archaic liturgical practices are not necessarily to be preferred to the more developed forms, since the development has taken place under the guidance of providence.
The compressed meanings of the rite are a bulwark against banality: It has this special significance because on this occasion the Lamb of God is present asuhangpflichtige the Altar in the consecrated Host.
The themes of approving and sealing the foregoing mysteries, and of mutual reconciliation and preparation for the reception of Communion, are, in this context, dependent upon this central idea, of the Peace which comes from Christ. Such customs are part of the authentic liturgical culture of their proper regions or orders, and should be preserved and fostered whenever possible. A Paxbrede also spelt pax-brede or paxbredin Latin instrumentum pacis or osculatoriumin Spanish portapaz is often a decorated silver plate with a handle on the back, but it can take a number of forms, sometimes incorporating a relic.
In the Middle Ages it was often made of wood, with a painted image. More modern examples are often gilded, with an enamelled image. A crucifix or icon can also serve as a Paxbrede. The use of the Paxbrede in the Extraordinary Form today must be considered in three contexts: Secondly, in the Rites and Usages of a number of religious orders, in addition to what is noted above, the Paxbrede is used to give the Pax to the servers and members of the community in choir at Solemn Mass, and in this way either supplements the embrace among the Sacred Ministers, as just described, or replaces it: The liturgical scholar Archdale King discusses the details in the context of the Carthusians,  the Premonstratensians,  and the Aushamgpflichtige.
You can also give it generally to all the Faithful But whatever you do, to princes and people of equivalent dignity, it is given with an amplexo.
In Spain there is the privilege whereby the acolyte brings the peace to the choir with the Paxbrede. In other words, the Paxbrede can be extended at Low and Sung Mass to the congregation, with the embrace reserved for lay dignitaries; this may be called a custom of Spain and her former possessions. The offering of the Paxbrede to the Faithful in Spain and the former Spanish represents a important survival of the Medieval practice of England and elsewhere.
Today, if time is short, the Paxbrede can if necessary be offered to a representative number of the Faithful, such as those in aushangpflichtihe front row, or the first person sitting in each pew. The Assistant Priest gives it to clergy in choir and then to the Master of Ceremonies. It is, however, appropriate that each person offer the sign of peace only to those who are nearest and in aushangpflichtuge sober manner.
Convenit tamen ut unusquisque solummodo sibi propinquioribus sobrie pacem significet. This practice reflects a concern for fragments of the Host which might adhere to the fingers. A special washing of the fingers in addition to the cleansing of the Chalice begins to be found in the Latin liturgical tradition from the beginning of the 8 th century: Rubrics instructing the celebrant to hold thumb and forefinger together are found in the earliest printed Missals of the late 15 th century.
Vol II pp, cites English diocesan statutes of ; the origin of the Paxbrede is put at c. Johnson, The Eucharistic Liturgies: SPCK, However, in former times men and women usually sat on different sides of the nave, a practice recommended in the Code of Canon Law Canon Yale,p. The Bruce Publishing Company, This appears to assume that there will be no Communion of the Faithful in Mass, as was indeed the practice for many centuries, either because the Faithful would receive only on the most important feasts, or because they received outside Mass.
It should be kept in mind that nothing is lost when the sign of peace is marked by a sobriety which preserves the proper spirit of the celebration, as, for example, when it is restricted to one’s immediate neighbours. Probe est asseverandum quemadmodum huius actus praestantiae nihil detrahat sobrietas, necessaria ad servandum idoneum celebrationis spiritum, exempli gratia, cum efficitur ut mutuum signum pacis detur solummodo personae proximae.
But ancient usage must not be esteemed more suitable and proper, either in its own right or in its significance for later times and new situations, on the simple ground that it carries the savour and aroma of antiquity.
The more recent liturgical rites likewise deserve reverence and respect. They, too, owe their inspiration to the Holy Spirit, who assists the Church in every age even to the consummation of the world. They are equally the resources used by the majestic Spouse of Jesus Christ to promote and procure the sanctity of man. Recentiores etiam liturgici ritus reverentia observantiaque digni sunt, quoniam Spiritus Sancti afflatu, qui quovis tempore Ecclesiae adest ad consummationem usque saeculorum, orti sunt; suntque iidem pariter opes, quibus inclita Iesu Christi; Sponsa utitur ad hominum sanctitatem excitandam procurandamque.
Others were made in an even more exquisite fashion like the reredos of an altar, while yet others show the appearance of a shield medallion. A fourth type of Instrument of Peace is a Cross provided with a foot, called a Pacificale.
The material they were made from was wood, often also stone, ivory, silver, gold or another metal. Cf Ritus servandus X, 3.
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